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Thursday, December 1, 2011

All about production of strawberry wine, plum wine and apricot wine

Concept note and production method of strawberry wine, plum wine and apricot wine

Process detail

                  Basically, the preparation of fruit wines is similar to the grape wine production.  Wine making from fruits like plum, apricot and strawberry is economical and unique in quality characteristics in consistence with the type of fruits. Unlike the grapes, the fruits of strawberry, plum or apricot are highly acidic in nature.  Besides this, these fruits are pulpy and they possess colour to make wine of appealing colour. They have characteristics flavor and the same is imparted to the wine. But these fruits have lower sugar content than the grapes thus, ameliorating the pulp to the desired level is essential.

               Like plum, strawberry fruits are also highly acidic in nature and to make a palatable   wine, dilution  of  pulp  with  water   is   the alternative  available. Filling of carboys was done up to 75 per cent capacity. Specific details are given below:

 1 (a): Strawberry

For the preparation of  red strawberry wine,  several  processes     like     crushing,     carbonic maceration, thermovinification  and fermented on the skin  are  practiced.

Thermovinification of wines                                                                                        

  Berries are destemed and washed.   Heating is done  at 65-70oC in 50% water for 5-6  minutes.   The free run juice  is  collected and  must  is  prepared.  The SO2 in the form  of potassium  metabisulphite  was added at the rate of  50  ppm.  The  ‘must’  is  kept overnight before  inoculation  with  the active  yeast  culture.  Liquid culture of Saccharomyces cerevisiae were prepared by inoculating a loop of the yeast cells from the slant into 100 ml of nutrient broth containing yeast extract, peptone, dextrose and heat sterilized and cooled to ambient temperature. The culture so prepared was further transferred to 500 ml flask contain plum must having TSS of 15oB. After incubation for 48 hours, the culture is ready for inoculation into the must.  Fermentation is carried out at a temperature of 27 ±1oC  in 5 litre flasks, fitted with air  locks and  initiated  by  addition  of  active  yeast  culture   of  Saccharomyces  cerevisiae var. ellipsoides at the rate  of  5 per  cent.   When there is no further loss  in  TSS,  the fermentation  is  considered as completed.  Air locks are fitted in the mouth of glass near the end  of  fermentation. It is followed by siphoning/racking and filtration.   The wines are racked initially after  every  15  days  and then, after one  month.   During fermentation, fall   in   TSS  (oB),  titratable   acidity    and   ethanol concentration  were  monitored at  appropriate  intervals  of time.   The prepared strawberry wines are filled  in  clean glass   bottles  upto  the  brim  adding  50  ppm   potassium metabisulphite.

1 (b): Plum

Preparation of must and fermentation

In preparation of  plum  wines, fully ripe fruits are used.  These are diluted with water  in 1:1  ratio, added with 0.3% pectinol, 150 ppm SO2 and  enough sugar  to  raise  TSS  of the must  to  24oB.   DAHP is added at the rate of 0.1 per cent as a nitrogen source. Pectinol enzyme at the rate of 3 per cent is also added for clarification of the ‘must’ during fermentation. The pulp is fermented to produce wine.  To initiate the fermentation at a temperature of 22 + 1oC by addition of liquid culture of Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast at the rate of 5 per cent of fermentation is added.

1 (c): Apricot

Preparation of must and fermentaion

            In apricot wine from New Castle Variety, the extraction of  pulp either by hot method or addition of enzyme and  water  to    the  fruits  could be adopted.  However, dilution of pulp in the ratio of 1:1 with  water, addition of  DAHP @ 0.1% and  raising the TSS to 30o B  make the wine of superior quality.

Composition of raw material

    2 (a): Strawberry

Average Range 
Edible portion (%)                       
Water (%)                                 
Total soluble solids (oB)                
Total sugars (%)                         
Titratable acidity (%)                   
Total phenols (mg/l)                     
Total anthocyanin (mg/l)                 
       Potassium (mg/100g)                   
       Sodium (mg/100g)                      
       Calcium (mg/100g)                     
       Magnesium (mg/100g)                   
       Iron (mg/100g)                         
       Zinc (mg/100g)                        


2 (b): Plum

Means + Standard Deviation
Fruit firmness (kg/cm2)
5.33 + 0.35
Fruit diameter (mm)
38.83 + 1.04
Fruit weight (g)
40.83 + 1.04
Total soluble solids (oB)
14.30 + 0.31
Titratable acidity (%)
2.12 + 0.07
Reducing sugar (%)
4.22 + 0.08
Total sugar (%)
7.32 + 0.04
Brix acid ratio
6.75 + 0.36

1 (c): Apricot

Fresh weight (g)
Fruit length (cm)
Fruit diameter (cm)
Fruit volume (cm3)
TSS (°B)
Total sugar (%)
Pectin (%)
Vitamin C (mg/100gm)
Thiamin (mg/100gm)
Riboflavin (mg/100gm)
Nicotinic acid (mg/100gm)

 Ingredients and chemical used


Strawberry  were  used for wine making is Camarosa  .

Plum fruit –Santa Rosa variety

Apricot fruit- New Castle

 Wine yeast culture

               The culture of  Saccharomyces  cerevisiae   var. ellipsoideus  strain UCD 595 used in the study or any other strain may be used.

Fermentable sugar

               Can sugar  is used  to  ameliorate  the  ‘must’  for   wine preparation.

Enzyme and chemical

               The pectinestrase enzyme, nutreinet source DAHP (di Amonium hydrogen phosphate) and KMS (potassium meta bisulphate).

Final product specification

4 (a): Strawberry

Table :  Physico-chemical Characterstics of Strawberry Wine


Charaterstics                 Thermovinification  


TSS (0B)                                 8.6                              

Total sugars(%)                       1.0                              

Reducing sugars(%)                0.126             

Titratable acidity                     0.73                          

 (% Citric acid)

pH                                            3.23               

Colour (Red)                           12.97              

        (Yellow)                          15.25              

Alcohol (%v/v)                        10.3               

Higher alcohol                         159                


Volatile acidity                         0.030            

 (%Acetic acid)

Esters(mg/l)                               92.1              

Phenols(mg/l)                           144.5             


4 (b): Plum

Composition of plum wine

Ethanol (% v/v)
Total soluble solids (OBrix)
8.0-12.0 (sweet)
Titratable acidity (% malic acid)
Volatile acidity (% acetic acid)
Esters (mg/liter)
Colour (Tintometer color units)

Total coloring matter and tannins (mg/100ml)

4 (c): Apricot

Composition of apricot wine

Physico-chemical Characteristics
Mean ± SD*
TSS (°B)
8.20 ± 0.07
Titratable acidity (%MA)
0.76 ± 0.02
3.15 ± 0.02
Alcohol (%v/v)
10.64 ± 0.09
Reducing sugars (%)
0.34 ± 0.01
Total sugars (%)
1.11 ± 0.02
Volatile acidity (%AA)
0.025 ± 0.002
Total phenols (mg/L)
253.60 ± 0.8
Colour (units)

0.70 ± 0.05
4.30 ± 0.08
0.60 ± 0.05

Input, output and recovery considered

  1. In case of strawberry wine, following considerations were employed

·         Dilution 1:1 of fruit/pulp

·         Thermovinification process is best for red colour strawberry wine production

Out put

·         Pomace is used as animal feed after suitable modifications

  1. In case of plum wine

·         Dilution 1:1of fruit /pulp

·         Wine recovery 80% of the total

Out put

·         Pomace and seeds as waste

·         Pomace can be used for biocolour extraction using technology developed

·         Oil from kernels

  1. In case of apricot wine

·         Dilution 1:2 of fruit/pulp

·         Wine recovery 80%

Out put

·         Pomace and seeds as waste

·         Pomace is used as animal feed after suitable modifications

·         Oil from kernels

By products (quantity and percentage wise) within the process.

Ø  Single cell protein (left after fermentation)

Ø  CO2 evolved during fermentation can be collected for carbonation of beverages

Ø  Oil from the kernels.

Microwave assisted Drying of Fruits and Vegetable-A value added Processing of Food

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