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Tuesday, December 6, 2011

Equipments required in a Laboratory

Equipments required in a Laboratory



1. Refractometer: It is used to measure the total soluble solids present in fruit juice and wines. Sugars are the major soluble solids in fruit juice and, therefore, total soluble solids (TSS) can be used as an estimate of sugar content. Organic acids, amino acids and soluble pectins also contribute to soluble solids. The refractometer measure the refractive index, which indicates how much a light beam will be refracted when it passes through the fruit juice or wine which is then correlated with TSS as degree brix.


2. Water Bath: It is used to heat samples and for Pasteurization process (in which samples are heated at 62.5 °C.


3. Hot air oven: It is used to dry samples. It contains one thermostat and 3-way heat switch. It has temperature range from 0 to 300°C. it is also used for sterilization of glass wares at temperature of 160°C for 1 hour.


4. Mettler Balance: it is type of weighing machine used for measuring chemicals.


                                   Minimum range of weighing- 0.02 gm

                                  Minimum range of weighing- 151 gm

                                   Least count- 1 mg


5. UV-VISIBLE SPECTROPHOTOMETER: The instrument used in ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy is called a UV/vis spectrophotometer. This instrument is used to determine the concentrations of an absorbing species in solution, using the Beer-Lambert law. Wine Samples are typically placed in a transparent cell, known as a cuvette. Cuvettes are typically rectangular in shape, commonly with an internal width of 1 cm. cuvettes are made of high quality fused silica or quartz glass because these are transparent throughout the UV, visible and near infrared regions.



6. CROWN CORKING MACHINE: Used for corking the bottles. Bottle is placed below it and the cork (cap) is placed on it and the pressure is exerted on it by the machine and sealing is done.



7. STERILIZATION TANK: Used for the sterilization of the bottles, utensils and other glass wares by keeping them in boiling water.



8. BOD INCUBATOR: It is known as BIOLOGICAL OXYGEN DEMAND Incubator. it is specially designed to meet the requirement for incubation of bacteria. It is also used for storage of sensitive cultures, vaccines, cultures of bacteria and fungi (yeast), microorganisms, serum incubation and seed germination etc.


9. AUTOCLAVE: it is a sterilization instrument. It is used for sterilizing glass wares, culture medium at 15 psi pressure, and 121°c temperature for 15 minute. Proper autoclave treatment will inactivate all fungi, bacteria, viruses, spores (endospores).



10. LAMINAR AIR FLOW: it is closed compartment which is used for pouring the culture medium into petriplates and test tubes for making slants. It contains various sterilizing operations like U.V. light treatment, HEPA filter.



11. INFRA-RED SPECTROPHOTOMETER: Infrared (IR) spectrometers measure the wavelength and intensity of the absorption of infrared light by a wine sample. in this chart positioning is done i.e feed the chart at least 2 cm beyond the ruled line from which recording is to start and roll it back until the recorder pen is aligned with that time.


12. FERMENTER: Fermenter placed in lab is of BioFlo fermenter. BioFlo fermenter is the gold standard laboratory scale fermenter. It is an advanced bioprocessing system designed to maximize yields in both fermentation and cell culture. Ideally suited to meet the changing needs of the research laboratory, this versatile fermentor/bioreactor is capable of producing high yields of biomass or secreted products from virtually any microbial, animal, insect and plant cell line. The stirred-tank system comes complete with everything needed for out-of-the-box fermentor start-up, and is offered with a variety of options for dedicated cell culture applications.


13. DISTILLATION UNIT: it is used for distillation purpose. It consists of one heating element, distillation flask and condenser.


14. pH METER: used for measuring the pH of samples of wine.

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